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3.

R, z; V z.

,

, , :

(3.2), (3.3)

(3.7)

(3.4) (3.5), (3.7),

(3.8) (3.4),

, k:

.

. (3.10)

. 39.

(3.11) (3.6), , .

(3.12) (3.5),

,

, V, .

, . ,

, V = 0

(3.17)

. (3.16)

, .

, 2V.

, . .

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